[Public Officials Korean] 3. Phonology

Last Updated: October 25, 2018 Categories: , , Tags:



 · Phonology is the smallest unit of sound that distinguishes the meaning of words. And it refers to an abstract, ideological sound that is remembered in the minds of the speakers and recognized as having the same sound value.

 * Phonemes and fortunes
  1) Phoneme: This is the smallest phonological unit that can no longer be divided into smaller ones. One or more phonemes come together to form a syllable.
  2) Unso: It refers to a prosody characteristic other than a phoneme that is involved in differentiating the meaning of words. It refers to the height, length, and strength of a sound.

 * Classification of grammar areas: phoneme (phoneme) -> syllable -> morpheme -> word -> word -> sentence -> story
  · Phonology can only be a component, not a structure, and a story can only be a structure, not a component. For example, the structure of a phonology is a syllable. Also, phonology is a component of syllables.

 * Language unit
  · Unit of sound: phoneme (phoneme / rhyme), syllable
  Units of grammar: morphemes, words, words, sentences

Type of phonology

 · Big Segmental (phoneme) and non-segmental (unso)Divide by Segments are, in simple terms, a consonant vowel. Hangul is also known as phoneme. Non-segmental refers to the length or height of a sound. Phonology is the smallest unit that distinguishes'meaning', and it can be said that non-segmentation is a kind of phonology because the length and height of the sound change the meaning used in real life.

 1) Segmental phonology: It refers to a phonology that is segmented like consonants and vowels.
  G. Consonant sound: A sound made by a disorder in the throat or mouth.

 * Types of consonants
  1) Classification according to the location of the sound: biceps, alveolar, soft palate, laryngeal sound
   · Yang pureeum: This is the sound between the two lips and corresponds to ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ, ㅁ.
   · Alveolar sound (=alveolar sound): This is the sound between the tip of the tongue and the gums and corresponds to ㄷ, ㅌ, ㄸ, ㄴ, and ㄹ. Also known as gum sound.
   · Soft palate: Also known as the soft palate, it is the sound between the back of the tongue and the soft palate. There are ㅇ, ㄱ, ㅋ, and ㄲ.
   · Hard palate: There are ㅈ, ㅉ, and ㅊ as sounds made between the tongue and the hard palate.

  2) Classification according to sound method: bursting sound, sibilant sound, fricative sound, fluid sound, nasal sound
   · Burst sound: This is a bursting sound produced by suddenly opening the articulatory organ that continuously closes the exhalation from the lungs, and is also called a closed sound. There are a, ㄲ, ㅋ / ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ / ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ.
   · Breaking sound: It is a consonant sound immediately after the breaking sound, followed by the same fricative sound as the articulating sound. All Korean wave sibilants are hard palate sibilants. There are ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ.
   · Frictional sound: This is a sound produced by the consonant articulation method, where the air from the lung cavity passes through a narrowed part of the oral cavity, causing friction.
Nasal and fluid sounds are called voiced or ringing sounds, and this gives a clear and clear feeling. There are ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ for nasal sounds, and ㄹ for fluent sounds.
    * Burst and sibilance Trilateral correlationIs achieved.
    * All vowels are voicedis.

    * Trigeminal correlation: This is a phenomenon in which the basic sound, hard sound, and aspirated sound form a set. As mentioned above, the rupture sound and the sibilant sound form trigeminal correlation, but no fricative sound. This is because ㅅ (basic sound), ㅆ (hard sound), and ㅎ (basic sound). This trigeminal correlation appears in the reality of language in the form of confrontation of sound images. It's a bit difficult to say, but it's easy to say that, for example, by writing ㄲ instead of a, the meaning changes.

  N. Vowel: The sound of the air flowing out of the lungs making the vocal cords ring and smoothly coming out of the mouth without being disturbed.

   * Vowel system
    · Short vowels: Vowels that do not change because the tongue is fixed during pronunciation. (10)
    · Double vowel: Refers to a vowel in which the shape of the lips or the position of the tongue changes during pronunciation. (11)

   * Vowel size order: Smaller feeling appears in the order of'ㅜ, ㅓ, ㅡ, ㅔ, ㅏ, ㅗ, ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅙ'.

 2) Non-segmental phonology: It is not a consonant or vowel, but it is an element that differentiates the meaning of words. It is performed in addition to the phoneme by length, pitch (intonation), or accent.

 3) number of phonology
  G. When considering the number of phonology, the actual voice realization type (ie Pronunciation)To do it.
  N. The initial ㅇ is not a phonetic rhyme. For example,'phonology' has 4 phonemes.
  C. Double consonants and double vowels are considered as one phoneme. In the case of'value', there are three phonology.
  L. Non-segmental phoneme (phoneme) is not included in the number of phonemes.
  E. Saishiot is a phonetic symbol, so it is not included in the number of phonemes. For example, in the case of candles, the pronunciation is both [super horn / chop horn], but the number of phonemes is considered to be 5.

 * Changes in meaning by the length and length of the sound. In standard language regulations
  1) Paragraph 6
   · In principle, long sounds appear only in the first syllable of a wordTo do it.
    Ex) Blizzard [snow':'violet], many [many':'ta], spread [bee':'leada], etc.
     · However, there are cases when it is not the first snow, true words, twin chestnuts, a lot of things, blind, and open up.

   · compound wordIn the case of, a clear long sound is recognized even below the second syllable.
    Example) There are half-hearted [ban':'god bar':'ni], and re-three-year-old.

   · Even if the ending'-ah/uh' is combined in a single syllable stem of a proverb and abbreviated to one syllable, it is pronounced in a long sound.
    Ex) boa->look[look:], be->go[go:], do->sun[sun:], etc.

  2) Paragraph 7
   · Even if the syllable has a long sound, it is pronounced short in the following cases.
    1) When endings that start with vowels are combined between monosyllables.
     Example) Winding [Gam':'Ta]-Winding [Gamni], Shinda [Shin':'Ta]-Shineo [Thinner], etc.
     * There are a lot of exceptions, but since it is at the 7th level, I will skip it.

    2) When the suffixes of passive and sadong are combined between verbs
     Ex) Winding [Gam':'Ta]-Winding [Cold], Stepping [Bob':' Ta]-Stepping [Footing]
     Exception) to be attracted [chil':'leave], open [bee':'lead], get rid of [up':'save]

Phonological change

1. Change and change

 1) Transformation: It refers to the phonological change that has been made over time, taking on a historical character as a diachronic change.
 2) Fluctuation: It is a synchronic change, which refers to the phonological change that changes due to the pronunciation of contemporary words. An example of this is palatalization. (It is pronounced as Guji, but ‘Daily’ is the standard language.)

2. Autogenous and Combined Changes

 1) Spontaneous change: It refers to the change by the personality of the phonology itself.
  G. ㆍ(Daeah) Loss of sound: It disappeared naturally due to difficulty in pronunciation.
  N. Representative Phonetic: Changes when a syllable appears alone before a consonant. It is also called the law of speech, or neutralization. The end sounds of syllables are ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ 7Pronounced as.
  C. Being the first sound: Being the first sound is when the unvoiced sound and the unvoiced sound meet, the back sound is a hard sound, so it can be said that becoming the first sound is not a change due to a combination, but a change in itself. However, it is not a standard pronunciation.
   Example) Close (black X), small (even X), etc...

  * If both are recognized as standard languages
Crumple/Treat, Circle/Pattern, Tap/Tap, Small/Small, Little/Little

  L. Variations in short and double vowels: shop (gagae X), jjigae (jjige X), dirty (soft X), girl (gijigae X)

 2) Combined change: It refers to the phonological change that comes from the influence of the phonology that comes before and after.
  Ex) Flower-do [Keot-do] -> [Ke-to], Flower language [Ke-n-word] -> [Contour], etc.

3. Decisive and voluntary changes

 1) Decisive fluctuation: This refers to a phonological phenomenon that occurs without exceptions only if certain conditions are given.
  G. Palate Voice: This is a phenomenon that is not the palate sound but becomes the palate sound.
 Conditions: ㄷ, ㅌ + ㅣ -> ㅈ, ㅊ + ㅣ
   Ex) Sunrise [Haeidoji], Together [Value], Dare [Guji], Field [Bachi], Rice Sweep [Rice Hulchi]
 Gore's Change: Dida> Jida, Gotida> Heal
   * Palate speech recognized in dialects: ㄱ-> ㅈ, ㅎ-> ㅅ
   Example) Brother -> Seongnim Oil -> Diameter

  N. Consonant fairy tale: In simple terms, it becomes ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ.
   · Narcissus: The eldest daughter-in-law [man's daughter-in-law], rice water [chestnut water], broth [gungmul], niryang [Namryang -> Namnyang]
   · Yueumhwa: Shilla [Sila], Water War [Mulali], Fireplace [Nallo]
   * The following consonant fairy tales are not recognized as standard pronunciation.
Cold [Persimmon':'Gi](Ganggi X), Cloth[Yetkam](Okkam X), Flower Road[Greatgil](MokgilX), Breastfeeding[Jummogi](Jummogi X), Grammar[Moonpaeng])(MompaengX ), flower garden [Geongpaeng] (HengpaengX)

  C. Lingual negative: ㄴ+ ㄹ, ㄹ+ ㄴ -> ㄹ+ ㄹ.
   Ex) Silla [Sila], blade [Kalal], skipping [Zulumki]
    · In some cases, the first sound'ㄴ' is connected as follows.
    Ex) Worn out [Darn], pierce [Torne], Lick [Halle]
    · However, for the following words, ㄹ is pronounced as'ㄴ'. (Usually 3-syllable Chinese charactersis)
    · Long-sounding: Opinion column [Instantiality: Knockout], Im Jinran [Im: Jinnan], Lee Wonron [Lee: Wonnon], Dong Wonryeong [Dong: Wonnyeong],
    · Short sound: production [production match], determination [evening], public power [evening], traction [evening of aiming], hospitalization fee [evening], crossing road [crossing road], mourning case [no luck], bulbous type [bulknew] ] Etc

   * Even in 3-syllable Chinese characters, those with'-roo','-ryeong', and'-ro' are pronounced as ㄹ+ㄹ.
Example) Gwanghallu [Gwang: Hallu], Daegwanryeong [Dae: Gwalryeong], Sinseon-ro [Sinseol-ro]
   * Like poetry, eup, and myeon,'ri' is an administrative district and has strong independence, so it is pronounced as Shincheonri [Shincheonni], Danginni [Danginni], Jumunjinri [Jumunjinni], etc. as it is subject to the rule of articulation (break reading). ..But there is an exception here too, it is Gwangalli [Gwang: Ali].

  L. Becoming old sound: When the ending sound of the preceding noun is unvoiced and the first sound of the trailing noun is unvoiced, the sound becomes the first sound of the trailing noun.
   · Compound words: Gukbap[Gukbaap], Gopdol[Goldol], Otgoreum [Yetkoreum]
   · Stem + Mother: Too much [to cut it], to be valuable [to be worth it], to load it to [load it], to be unfamiliar [to chop]
   · Cheon + Investigation: Bookdo [Bookto], Value [Gap]

 2) Voluntary fluctuation: This is a phonological change that occurs in some cases even if certain conditions are given. It is not a standard pronunciation.
  G. Relative Eum: It means that ㄷ, ㅂ, ㄴ, and ㅁ are assimilated to the Relative Eums ㄱ, ㅋ, ㅇ, and ㄲ to become a R&D.
   Example) Spoon [Spoon] (Sukkarak X), Health [Health] (Gunggang X), meticulous [meticulous] (KongkommadaX)

  N. Vowel fairy tale: It is also not a standard pronunciation. Baby [baby], deceive [isolated], kill [isolated]
  *'ㅣ' vowel order behavioralization: all of them are not standard pronounciations except for being [do], peer [bleeding], Io[iyo], no [no], and spaces [spaces].

  * Standard word regulation by'ㅣ' vowel inversion behavior
   · It is not a standard pronunciation. Mother (Emi X), Handle (Handy X)
   · Friends whose form of'ㅣ' vowel reverse behavior is applied is a standard language
    Ex) Country-Bet, Pot, My-Dong, Daenggi (Fire)
   · For creative engineers,'-chief' is used for others.
    Example) Blacksmith, Plasterer, Juggler, Spitman

  C. Yang pure sound: The tip of the tongue ㄷ and ㄴ are assimilated with yang pure sound ㅂ, ㅍ, ㅁ, ㅃ
   Ex) Flower language [Keppan] (Common X), flower basket [Keppaguni] (Hoppaguni X), newspaper [Newspaper] (Interrogation X)

  L. Saisori phenomenon: This refers to the recognition of the first sound of the back end as a hard sound when there is a support in the front end or the object of the sishi ot. Only in compound words It happens.
   When the end sound of the preceding noun is voiced and the first sound of the trailing noun is unvoiced, the sound becomes the first sound of the trailing noun
    Ex) Bombi [Bombee], Breakfast [Breakfast], Eyes [Snow Dung], Sole of Feet [Foot Pad], Ganga [Gangka], Lantern [Dunghorn]
    · Exceptions: chestnut, silver money, horsedrops, bean rice, whale oil, overpass, illegal, registered
   · In the case of differentiation of meanings: meat belly [fish pear]: fishing belly / meat belly [meat belly]: meat belly, dragonfly [dragonfly]: insect/ [sleepy sleep]: sleeping futon

   · A phenomenon in which a'b' sound is added when the first sound of the last syllable comes with a bolus in the front end and ㅣ, ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, etc.
    Example) Flower petals [connite], potion [mulgnac -> trick], bean syrup [kongnyeon]

   · Vowel + ㄴ, ㅁ -> add ㄴum (Saishiot rule)
    Ex) Conal -> Nose [Conal], bottom + tooth -> Lower tooth [Aranny]

 3) addition of sound
  G. It is pronounced by adding a'ㄴ' sound when there is a final consonant in the front and the trailing words start with vowels (ㅣ, ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ).
   Ex) Cotton blanket [Som':'Nibul], Waip-il [Sang-Nil], Nam-Jon-Yabi [Boss-Nyeo-bi], Direct Train [Zikengnyeon Cha], pleurisy [Wonderfulness]

  N. The'ㄴ' sound added after the'ㄹ' base is pronounced as [ㄹ].
   Example) Deulil [Deul': Lil], unripe [sullikta], fire fox [callo], gasoline [gasoline]
  * Even if two words are pronounced in succession,'ㄹ' is added and pronounced.
Ex) Things to do [Halyl], 1st regiment [serial force]

  C. The following words are pronounced by concatenating the preceding consonant without adding a'ㄴ(ㄹ)' sound.
   Example) June 25 (Yoo Gi-oh), farewell year (Song Gyeo-ryeon), homeroom teacher (Dammim), Friday (the day of the catering), saving (lower)

  L. In the case of acknowledging both the linkage and the addition of'b'
   Ex) Censorship [Geumniung/Gumnyun], Finance [Geumniok/Gummun], Metallurgical Metallurgy [Metallurgy metallurgy/Yogmygeum], Leejuk leather [Leejungnijuk/Leejujujuk], Yolangyollan [Yollangnolan/Yollangyollan]

 * Pronunciation related matters

  1. Pronunciation of'ㄺ'
   1) stem + mother
    G. ㄺ is pronounced as [ㄹ] before the ending with ㄱ. Clearly [talk], read [work]
    N. ㄺ is pronounced as [ㄱ] in front of a ending that does not start with a. Read [Ikta], Mukchi [Mukchi]
    C. If a vowel comes after ㄺ, it is concatenated. Reading [and]

   2) body language + investigation
    G. ㄺ is pronounced [ㄱ] in front of a survey that begins with a consonant. Soil and stone [black stone]
    N. ㄺ is pronounced as [ㄹ] in front of a survey that begins with a vowel and is concatenated. Whole Chicken [Tongdalgeul], Whole Chicken [Tongdalgi]

  2. Pronunciation of'ㄼ'
   1) Principle
    G. It is pronounced as'ㄹ' before a word or consonant. Wide [nerd], thin [alta]
    N. In front of the vowel, ㄹ is pronounced and ㅂ is connected. Stepping on [valve], eight [eighty]

   2) Exception
    G. In principle,'wide-' is pronounced as ㄹ (wide [wide]) It's broad [flour], it's broad [flour], it's broad [flour] There are 3 exceptions.
    N. 'Tread-'
     · In front of the ending with a consonant, pronounce it as ㅂ. Stepping [Bob':Ta], Stepping [Bob':A -> Chestnut':A]
     · In front of the ending with a vowel, ㄹ is pronounced and concatenated. Stepping on [footing]
    * When indicated by ㄼ
     · If the preceding'ㄹ' is pronounced, it is considered that the etymology is not conscious, so the etymology is not clarified (wide (not standard) -> wide (standard))
     · If'ㅂ' is pronounced at the back, the etymology is considered to be conscious, so write down the etymology.

 * Organize essential items

  1) Only 7 words of'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ'are used for pronunciation.

  2) The pronunciation of'ㅎ' is
   G. In the case of'ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ', which is pronounced as ㄷ... one time during the day [when I am], a set of clothes [ohtan bee]
   N. If'ㄴ' is combined after'ㅎ', it is pronounced as [ㄴ]. Laid[played]
   C. If'ㄴ' is combined after'ㄶ, ㅀ','ㅎ' is not pronounced. No [Ann]
   L. 'ㅎ' is not pronounced when'ㅎ(ㄶ,ㅀ)' is followed by a ending or affix that begins with a vowel. Born [Better], let it go [Noah], even if I hate [even if]

  3) If the real morpheme that starts with a vowel is connected behind the base, the base of the front end is changed to a representative sound, and the sound is pronounced as the first sound of the latter syllable.
   Example) Below the knees [smooth], above the clothes [behind the scenes]
   * It's a bit difficult to say, but it's not a real morpheme, When a formal morpheme is pronounced, it does not change to a representative sound, and is immediately connectedDo it. On the knees [Murpe], in front of the swamp [Nevape]

  4) The name of the Hangul alphabet is connected with the final sound, but the case of'C, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ'is slightly different. Diguyi [Digsi], Jiseon[Heysi], Kiyeon [Raise], Chieun [Keeeugeul], Bloody [Pheesi], Hiyhee[Heesi]

  5) Even if there is no Saishiot in the notation, if there is a Saishiot that has a tubular type function, the first sound of the latter word is pronounced as a Korean sound.
   Ex) Doorknob [Doortail], Shinbaram [Shinparam]

  6) Among the Chinese words,'ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ'after'ㄹ' is pronounced in Korean.
   Example) Conflict [Galveng], annihilation [horse rice], sloppy consciousness [mole ssang sik], development [balancing]

  7) Pronunciation of Saisiot: When Saisiot comes before words that start with'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, ㅅ', it is a rule to pronounce only these consonants in Korean, but it is also allowed to pronounce'ㄷ'.
   Example) Stream [my':?/???], bye-gil [bird': giggling/shopping': giggling]

  8)'ㅢ' of a syllable that has a consonant as the first sound is pronounced as [ㅣ].
   Ex) Bigger [Ningbig], Hope [Himang], Space [Indigo]

  9) Other than the first syllable of a word,'ui' can be pronounced as [ㅣ], and investigation'ui' can be pronounced as [ㅔ].
   Ex) Significance of democracy [democratic(i)(e) significance(i)

  10)'ㄹ' connected after'ㅁ, ㅇ'is pronounced as [ㄴ].
   Ex) Bravery [light dinner], aggression [silnac], cool [Namryang -> Namnyang]

 * Other phonological phenomena

1) Vowel harmony: Positive vowels match positive vowels and negative vowels match negative vowels.
   G. In the 15th century, it was thoroughly observed, but in the 16th century, it began to be destroyed due to the fluctuations of Hawa.
   N. In modern Korean language, it is best preserved in onomatopoeia and mimic words, and is generally well preserved between stem and ending.
   C. In the case of a standard language that is not a vowel harmony: tomcat, five-tuk, Hopping, Oh Soon Do-soon (pollution is possible), Childhood Play, Arthura

  2) Original vowelization: It is a phenomenon in which ㅡ changes to'ㅜ' under the pure tone (ㅁ, ㅍ, ㅂ).
   G. Change: After change is the standard language. Ml -> Water, Black -> Fire
   N. Fluctuation: The standard word before change. I'm happy -> I'm glad, I'm constricted -> Omurida

  3) Legendary vowel: When a chieum (ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ) comes, the posterior vowel ㅡ is the phenomenon that changes to the legendary vowel'ㅣ'.
   G. Change: After change is the standard language. Shunda -> I hate it -> Beast
   N. Fluctuation: The standard word before changing. It's scary -> It's scary, it's creepy -> It's creepy

   * Exceptions: To be sloppy (to be sloppy X), sloppy (to be sloppy X), sloppy (to be sloppy X), tidy up (to be sloppy X), non-instruction (no stubborn X)
-> This case has not changed historically, so it is considered as a change, but it is an exception.

  4) drop out
   G. Elimination of'U': If a ending with a vowel meets a stem of a verb that ends with'U','e' is eliminated without exception.
    E.g.) follow: follow + ah -> follow, float: float + oh -> float

   N. Homophony
    · Dropped out of vowels: go + Arthur -> go, stand + stand -> stand
    · Consonant drop out: Gannan -> Poverty, Mokwa -> Chinese quince, Babbo -> Fool

   C. 'ㄹ' dropped out
    · It refers to the phenomenon that ㄹ is dropped before ㄴ, ㄷ, ㅅ, and ㅈ in derivative words and compound words.
     Ex) Bulnabi -> Bunabi, Buldong -> Floating, Undecided -> Negative

    ·'ㄹ' elimination term -> fly, know
     * In front of the ending of'ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ, -O', the stem'ㄹ' is eliminated.
     Ex) Fly: I (flying X), Nao (flying X), rough: rough, rough, rough

     * In the case of acknowledging elimination of'ㄹ'
     Ex) Sleeping (Sleeping X), Withered (Withered X), Rough (Roughed X), Sing (Stinged X), Rusty (Rusted X), Visor (Vilso X), Live Fish (Lived Fish X), I think my skill is'is' (I think my skill has improved X)

     * Except for the endings of'b, ㅂ, ㅅ, -oh', they are not eliminated, but -uh- cannot come.
     Example) If a water bird flies (X if it flies), I want to know it (Know X)

  5) Aphrodisiac (becoming a harsh sound): When a, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, etc. meet ㅎ at the front and back, it changes into ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ.
   G. ㅎ Lasting body language: When the shape of the body language changes, ㅎ intervenes between the body language and the investigation. In modern language, the trace remains in the compound language.
    Ex) inside and outside, lean meat, hen, hair

   N. The prefix that makes up the male is unified as'male-'.
    Ex) Male pheasant, male thread, male pig, hydrogen
    Exception) 3 male-sheep, male-goat and male-rat are exceptions.

   C. In terms of cancer and number, only the following words are admitted to add'ㅎ'. In other words, other than this, it should not be aspirated.
    Ex) Male cane, male cane, male, male, male, male / rooster, male ass, hinge, boar / cockerel. Of course, I use it as a bitch, a bitch, etc.

  6) Enhancement: This is a phenomenon that is intended to be clearly heard in our ears.
   G. Gyeongeumhwa: Bulhui -> Root, Cape -> Flower
   N. Aphrodisiac: go -> nose, gal -> sword

  7) Ewha: When two notes of the same or similar character are adjacent to each other, one note changes or drops out of reluctance to overlap the same note, making the auditory phenomenon clear.
   G. Consonant Ewha: Geobop -> Turtle, Boop -> Drum
   N. Vowel Ewha: Chueom -> First, Ser -> Each other, Gagae -> Shop
   C. Homogeneous omission: When the same consonant or vowel overlaps, one of them is eliminated to make the pronunciation clear.
    · Homogeneous omission of consonants: Gannan -> Poverty, Mokwa -> Quince
    · Homogeneous omission of vowels: Moshida -> Moshida, Haunted -> Plague

  8) Live Tone: This refers to a phenomenon in which a hard and rough sound is converted into a smooth sound to clarify an auditory impression.
   G. ㄴ -> changed to ㄹ
    Ex) Han-father -> Grandfather, Hannah-san -> Hala-san, Han Aneung -> Han Beautiful
   N. Hyatus avoidance phenomenon
    Example) Jiyisan -> Jirisan, Gyang -> Just, pneumonia -> Pneumonia

  9) negative regression
   G. It is a phenomenon of incorrectly reversing the grammar and is an inverse phenomenon of palatalization.
   N. It refers to the phenomenon that the palatal sound ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ somehow felt like a dialect or slang, so I changed it to'ㄱ, ㅋ, ㅎ', etc. to pretend to be a little present.
    Ex) Seongnim -> Brother, Sim -> Strength, Diameter -> Oil (dialects), Dimchae -> Jimchae -> Jimchun -> Kimchi, Jilsam -> Weaving

  10) Marriage: It refers to the phenomenon of combining two words of the same or similar meaning to become one.
   E.g.) a dog + a tail -> a dog, a goose + a booby -> a goose

  11) Analogy: This is a phenomenon that tries to unify the confused form into a standard form for convenience of memory.
   G. Unification as'-lo' type: There are many'-lo's in adverbs such as'harmlessly, dayly'.
    Ex) Seor -> Each other, Saree -> New

   N. Unification with'-(으)ㅁ' type: Based on the noun derived affix'-(으)ㅁ'.
    Example) Sogom -> Salt, Cheowom -> First time

   C. Unified in'-day' type: Based on '10 days'.
    Example) Sahal -> 3 days, Nahal -> 4 days

   L. Unification as a'-ooh-' type: This is because there are many'-ooh-' forms in verbs.
    Ex) Gyeonhoda -> Gyeonwooda -> Gyeonwooda -> Aim

   E. Unification of'living' into'win'
    Ex) Lee Saeng -> Lee Seung, New Moon -> New Moon

  12) Benevolence: It refers to the phenomenon that the end sound changes to'ㄹ -> ㄷ'when a word with a ending sound and another word match.
   Example) Sewing hook -> Half-ring, two days -> The next day, alcohol -> spoon
   * Me + rhythm -> In chopsticks,'ㅅ' is Saishiot.

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