[Public Officials Korean] 4. Morphology

Last Updated: February 24, 2019 Categories: , , Tags:


Morphology. Morphemes, words, parts of speech, conjugation, formation

Morphology of the Korean language. Morphology is pretty much in content and difficult. There are morphemes, words, parts of speech in Korean, use of parts of speech, words, and so on. Let’s look at morphology one by one.

1. Morphology: Meaningful The smallest unit of words.

 1) Independent morphemes: Nouns, pronouns, rhetoric, ceremonial sentences, adverbs, and interjections belong and can be used alone.
  Ex) The flower is very pretty -> It is a very self-supporting morpheme.

 2) Dependence morpheme: investigation, affix, Stem, It refers to a morpheme that leans against other words because it belongs to the mother and cannot be used alone.
  Example) The flowers are very pretty -> -This, pretty- All three are dependent morphemes.

 3) Real morpheme: Stem, Noun, rhetoric, pronoun, ceremonial, adverb, interjection, etc. belong to, and refer to morphemes with specific meanings.
  Ex) Flowers are very pretty -> Flowers, very, pretty-

 4) Formal morpheme: It refers to a morpheme that has only grammatical meaning and includes investigation, ending, and affix.
  Ex) The flowers are very pretty -> This, everything

 * Here, the word stem Dependent morpheme and real morphemeYou can see that it is.

 * Determine the number of morphemes
  1) Onomatopoeia and mimicry are two morphemes. Chalangchalang, toast, etc.
  2) All Chinese characters are morphemes. However, words made by sound differences such as Asia and Paris are one morpheme, and fusion compound words, in which two or more Chinese characters such as Kwangeum, Chunchu, and Geumsil, become one new meaning, are one morpheme.
  3) A person's first name is two morphemes: first and last name.
  4) Saishi clothes The sign of the soundTherefore, it is not a morpheme.

2. Word: It is the minimum self-reliance unit. It is the smallest unit that can be used alone.

 1) Dependent nouns, auxiliary verbs, and investigations are a single word.
  Ex) There is a lot to eat at the table. Far from loving (far + far)

 2) The stem + ending is considered as one word.
  Example) The flowers bloomed beautifully.

 3) The number is written down in tens of thousands, but there is only one word.

3. Part-of-speech: It refers to the branch of words that have a common nature.

 1) Noun: A group of words that indicate the name of an object. Proper noun, usually noun. Or it is divided into independent nouns and dependent nouns.

  * Preeminence
   · Noun meaning: Attached to the stem of a verb or adjective, it looks like a noun and is used like a noun. '~um (ㅁ), ki' is mainly used.
    Example) I'm disgusting to look at -> Although'look' looks like a noun, it actually acts as a predicate for'me'. Part of speech is a verb. Even if the noun meaning is attached, the proper part of speech does not change.

  · Tubular ending: It is a ending that attaches to the stem of a verb or adjective and makes it possible to use a verb or adjective as if it were a tube. There are'ㄴ, ㄹ, silver, silver'.
   Ex) Very pretty flower -> Originally, it is an adjective of'pretty', but it can be used like a tube detective with the ending of'ㄴ'.

 2) Pronoun: A word used in place of the name for a specific object.

  * Distinguishing between indicative pronouns and indicative idioms: Typically, there is'this, that, that', but instead of'this, that, that' 'This, that, thatIf the sentence is not awkward by adding','this, that, me' is used as a directing pronoun.

 * Reflexive pronoun'you': Used to avoid repetition of the third person subject. When used as a third person, it is a reflexive pronoun. Of course, it is also used as a second person pronoun.

 3) Rhetoric: It refers to a group of words indicating the quantity and order of the nouns that precede them. It is largely divided into positive numbers representing quantity and ordinal numbers representing order. The important point here is The rider floats unconditionally.Is. And a word that refers to a fixed point in time combined with a number is a noun. These include year, month, day, and time.

 * Difference between rhetoric and criminal detectives: Investigation can be followed by investigation (two tadpoles), whereas a noun that depends on unity follows (two tadpoles).

 4) Investigation: It refers to a dependent morpheme that displays a grammatical relationship attached to an independent morpheme. First, it is classified as a single word.
  G. Investigation: This is a survey that determines the sentence component of the preceding sentence. Investigation needs to be weighed in the context of the front and back.
   Example) Endless blasting sound, the diligent season blooms

  N. Connection survey: A survey that connects two words with the same qualification. There are wah, gua, and so on.

  C. Assistant: It refers to an investigation that adds a special meaning, unlike a case investigation attached to the preceding sentence.
  * Type of assistant
   · Marking assistant: It is an assistant that indicates that related items in the same club have different values.
    Example) Korean is fun, but math is not. Here silver/is the meaning of this contrast.

   · Ninja Assistant: An assistant that indicates that related items in the same club have the same value.
    Example) Yeongsu also started. Here,'do' stands for the same, or too.

 * Use of secondary fire investigation
  G. Qualifications and tools
   ·'As': Qualification
    Ex) He is good as a friend, but not enough as a husband.
   ·'As': tools, means, and methods
    Ex) Can you resolve the conflict through conversation? Now I have no choice but to appeal with tears.

  N. Opponent secondary fire
   ·'-E': after an amorphous noun
    Ex) The government is responsible for the collapse of Seongsu Bridge.

   ·'To-': after the noun
    Example) The president was asked to declare a disaster area.

  C. Sub-shot
   ·'-On': Fixed location, condition or environment
    Example) There is dirt on clothes. I live in the countryside.

   ·'In': When an action or state is moving or is taking place. 'In' is used in four meanings: place, reason, subject, and starting point.
    · Place: We decided to meet at the library in the morning.
    · Starting point: We are one of the leading powerhouses in Asia.
    · Rationale: This is a message from Maum, who is grateful.
    · Subject: An investigation conducted by the government was announced.

  L. Tool subfire
   ·'-(으)ㅁ(written)': by doing -(noun-type ending + instrument qualification investigation (means/methods/tools))
    Ex) He repays the grace of his parents by studying hard.
   ·'Because': -because (reason, cause)
    Ex) The opponent is a player who is too strong, so be careful.

  E. Citation investigation
   ·'-Lord (-)': Direct quotation
    Example) Chulsoo shouted "It's fire."
   ·'-Go (-is)': indirect quotation
    Example) I said that he was right.

 5) Proverbs
  G. Main and auxiliary words
   · Original words: These are words that represent practical meaning.

   · Auxiliary verbs: They represent a grammatical meaning and are not self-reliant.

    · Be sure to use a space between the main word and the main word. Example) Cheol-su is carrying a book.
    · Main and auxiliary words are basically written. Ex) Things are going well.
    In principle, supplementary verbs should be spaced, but in some cases, additional words are allowed. Ex) Things are going well.

    · However, there may be cases where auxiliary verbs must be used.
     1) When irradiation is attached to the main word: The flower only withers.
     2) When an investigation enters the middle of a supplementary verb: It is likely that he will come.
     3) When the front word is a compound verb: you try to attack.

   * How to connect main and auxiliary words
    · Supplementary words Auxiliary linking ending '-Ah, -uh, -crab, -ji, -goIt connects to the original word through'.

  N. The mother of a dragon
   · First word ending: The meaning is further specified in front of the ending ending.
    · Elevation: (U) City
    · Tense: is (present), was/was (past), will (future), -more (recall)

   · Mother
    · Ending ending: comment, admiration, question, order, solicitation

   · Imperative ending
    Direct command: When there are many listeners:'-Ah/Ara' Example) Set up a big check.
    · Indirect command: When no listener is listening:'-Ra' Ex) Write an answer

   * Malda's imperative
    Direct command: Do not go, do not go, do not make a noise, do not make a noise, etc.
    · Indirect order: I told you not to go late (X) -> I told you not to go late.

   · Non-terminating ending
    · Linked ending: There are coarse linking ending, dependent linking ending, and auxiliary linking ending.
    · Prominent endings: There are tubular endings (ㄴ, ㄹ, (은)), and noun-type endings ((으)ㅁ, qi).

 6) Guan detective: A word that is placed in front of a body language and decorates its contents in detail.
  G. Appearance: Decorates the nature or state of any object indicated by the body language.
   Ex) new clothes, old books
  N. Instruction: It is a coronal sentence meaning to refer to something. 
   Example) This exercise, that child,
  C. Number: A tubular sentence that indicates the quantity of a noun.
   Example) two boats, three people

  * Any other and
   G. Kwan detective: You brought another book. / What flowers did you buy?
    · Here, the other and some are the tubular sentence that modifies the following books and flowers.

   N. Adjective: He builds a house with a different structure. / What kind of person do you look like?
    · Here, some are not decorating the house and people that follow, but the structure is different. Predicateis. Some are also similar.

  * Classification between ceremonial and investigation: Presence or absence of investigationSeparated by.
   · If there is an investigation, it is an investigation: Bring only one apple.
   · If there is no investigation, it is a court criminal case: bring a book

  * Suffix:'-enemy' (noun if there is investigation / tube criminal if there is no investigation)
   · Noun: Historical mission (used as a noun as-enemy + investigation.)
   · Gwan-hyeongsa: Historical mission (no research is attached to the back, it immediately decorates a noun)
   · Adverbs: As soon as possible (modify the adverbs that follow)

 7) Adverbs: These words make the meaning more clear by decorating the following verbs or adverbs.
  G. Ingredient adverb
   · Appearance: It indicates the nature or state. So hot. Rippling.
   · Instruction: Instructs the words in front of the place and time. Come on, let's meet tomorrow
   · Negation: It is an adverb that is used to negate the meaning of a verb. I won't. can not do it.

  N. Sentence adverb
   · Conjunctive adverb: It has the meaning of forward, inverse, parallel, addition, conversion, causal.
   · Modal adverb: It is an adverb related to the speaker's mindset, that is, attitude. Indeed, he is a genius. Please study more.

 8) Interjection: A group of words that the speaker directly expresses his feelings or will.
  · Words that speak like a habit are usually uneconomical expressions. I do not know. You know, etc.
  · The suggested word is a noun. youth! This is a word that makes my heart flutter just by listening. (The word',' is usually used after the suggested word. That is, just because! Is not an exclamation point.)
Noun + Striking: Not an exclamation. Youngsu, eat rice. It's the same way.

4. Irregularity in utilization

C1) regularity
  G. 'ㄹ' Elimination Proverbs: If the end of the stem is'ㄹ', it will be eliminated before'ㄴ' without exception.
   Ex) cry -> cry, know -> no
  N. 'U' dropout word: If the end of the stem is'U', it is dropped before the vowel without exception.
   Example) Write -> Write, follow -> Follow

 2) irregularities
  G. Irregular use of stem changing
   ·'ㅂ' rule wording: to wear, pull out, chew, catch, bake (bent) -> usually wear it on.
   ·'ㅂ' Irregular sayings: to bake (with fire...), to put in, lie down
   ·'-Oh/-ooh': to help -> help eg) What can I do for you?
   ·'-Woo': Bake, beautiful, new, no-ko, lie down....

  * Beware of irregular words'ㅂ'
   · Sunmi is truly a feminine child -> feminine
   · She walked on a dark country road -> dark

   ·'C' rule term: close, raise, believe, pour out, ask, walk
   ·'C' irregular phrases: to ask, to inquire, to pour out, to hear, to walk
    * If the stem ends in C -> If the ending starts with a consonant, it becomes C, and if the ending starts with a vowel, it becomes D.
     Ex) swelling (weight) -> insomnia (X), insomnia (ㅇ)

   ·'ㄹ' irregular: flow -> flow, call -> call
    Example) The student was polite
   ·'Le' rule term: to follow, to pay, to reach, to stop by

  N. Irregular use of changing endings
   ·'Female' irregular: When the ending'ah/uh' is attached to the stem of a vowel, it changes to'female'.
    Example) Do: Do, do, do, do, do.
   ·'Look' -> look, look

   Irregular'Russ': This is a phenomenon in which the'ah/uh' of the ending in front of the vowel ending changes to'Russ'.
    Ex) Early: Come on, come on. Press: Press, press
   ·'Stop by -> stop by'

   ·'You' irregular: When'Ara/Ah' is added to the imperative ending,'You' is a phenomenon.
    Example) Oh (C) + Oh -> Come 

  C. Irregular use of stem and ending
   · When a verb with a stem word'ㅎ' is combined with the ending'-ah/-uh','ㅎ' falls off and the ending is also combined with'i', not'ah/uh'.
    Example) White + teeth -> White, blue + teeth -> Blue

   ·'ㅎ' when combined with the ending'-ㄴ','ㅎ' is eliminated.
    Example) Blue+ㄴ -> Blue, Red+ㄴ -> Red
     Here it is blue -> blue, but not blue. Similarly, yellow is correct, but yellow is incorrect.

   * Differences between verbs, adjectives, and narrative tests
    1) Adjectives cannot take a ending to indicate an action. In addition to this, there are more Verbs can be imperative, listening, and continuous. Adjectives cannot use all three of those.
     Ex) Read hard (ㅇ), Very beautiful (X), Read a book (ㅇ), Very pretty (X)

    2) Adjectives cannot take a connecting ending to indicate purpose or intention.
     Ex) I left to read a book (ㅇ), left because my face was pretty (X)

    3) The narrative level investigation is similar to an adjective, but'ro' is sometimes added.
     Example) It's already autumn! (You're pretty -> You're pretty)

    4) Adjectives cannot use the ending of'-is' in the present process.
     Ex) Right answer -> Right answer, appropriate behavior for age -> Age appropriate behavior, young (you are young X)

     · Be healthy or be happy, which we commonly use, are incorrect expressions. By using the verb to stay, it is correct to stay healthy or to be happy.

5. Formation of words

1) Derivation method: It is a combination of affixes.
  G. prefix
   · Dominant usage: Induces the exclusivity of POS.
    Example) Me-Martha, Kang-Martha

   · Limited usage: It limits the meaning of the words that follow.
    · Tubular prefix: It is a prefix that has a form that modifies the body language at the end.
    · Adverb prefix: A prefix that has the form that modifies a verb or adjective after it.

  * Classification of affixes and tube sentences
   · Close-up: Has a specificity. You can use the affix only for special minority nouns.
    Ex) Man + body, hands, feet, etc.

   · Official sentence: Has generality. It can be decorated with the corresponding ceremonial sentence throughout the general noun.
    Ex) Bird + shoes, pencil, computer, etc.
     · All affixes are formal morphemes. It is not a real morpheme.

  N. Suffix: You can induce the malleability of parts of speech.
   · Limited affix: Only the meaning of the root is limited. Does not change the part of speech.
    ·'-Greeting': welcoming moon, welcoming guests, new year, and Chuseok
    ·'-Daly-': thick, long
    ·'-Mr.': Mind (Skill, Map, etc. are one word)

   · Dominant affix: Attaches to the root and changes the part of speech.
    · Noun suffix
     ·'-Well, Lee': laughter, ice, step, flicker
     ·'-Ki': speaking, writing
     ·'-Dog': cover, eraser
     ·'-Urge': rest
     ·'-Woong': welcome

    · Verbization suffix
     ·'-Do': to violate, exercise
     · -Sadong, passive suffix: to reveal, increase, narrow

    · Adjective suffix
     ·'-Do': to be generous, to be sad
     ·'-Look-': Proud, feminine
     ·'-Answer-': Beautiful, gentleman

    · Adverbation suffix
     ·'-I, hi-': clean, high, deep, steady, quiet
     ·'-Oh, ooh-': finally (pilot + oh), road (stone + oh), face to face (right + right)

  * Suffix and ending
   · Mother: Freely combines with almost any stem. It only displays the relationship with other words, but cannot change the part of speech.
   · Suffix: The combination is very limited, adding some meaning to the root They also change parts of speech.
    Example) To sleep (noun) to sleep (verb): To sleep.
   * The noun form of a horse with a stem of'ㄹ' is in the form of'ㄻ'.
    Example) Father made a desk

   * Separation of the prefixes'hole-' and'single-'
    · He lost his wife and became single. / She is pregnant and therefore not single.

   * Separation of suffix and dependent noun: Be careful with spaces.
    · Military affix: When referring to the name of the king -> Paste (Gwanghae-gun)
     · Noun: Specific individual -> Space (Lee)

    · Both affixes: woman who has the job as a job -> paste (exchange amount, information amount)
     · Noun: Specific individual -> space (correction amount)

    · Nim affix: when it is attached after some nouns indicating position or status to indicate the meaning of exaltation -> paste (teacher, wife)
     · Noun: Specific individuals are spaced. Minsu 

 2) Synthesis method
  G. It can be divided according to the combination of elements that make up a compound word.
   · Syntactic compound word: A compound word that matches the component arrangement of Korean. Also known as productive coining.
    · Official detective + noun: first love, Saemaul
    · Investigation omitted: road (right) floor, strength (he)
    · The mother is not omitted: small type, raw animal, old man, return
    · When a verb or adverb comes after an adverb: face to face, intercept, straight away

   · Unsynthetic compound word: A compound word that does not match the arrangement of components in Korean, and is also called an unproductive coined word.
    · Omitted ending: It is impossible to omit ending in Korean. Firm, high-blue, knife, age spot, shallow, crushed, rice bowl
     · Adverbs + nouns: drizzle, gentle breeze, dr.
     · Words formed differently from the general word order in Korean: Usually Chinese characters. Reading, climbing

  N. According to the logical relationship between the elements that make up a compound word, it can be divided as follows.
   · Equivalent: A compound word whose roots are equal and maintain the original meaning. Hands and feet, one or two, limbs, open and close, jump
   · Dependent: A compound word in which one root modifies the other. Blue crab, spring rain, handkerchief, mop, leather shoes, beef, chains
   · Convergence: A compound word that expresses a new meaning by completely fusion of roots. Gwangeum, Spring and Autumn, Contradiction, Teacher, Heaven and Earth

 3) Complex derivation and synthesis methods
  G. Derivation of compound words: When compound words are derived again by affix.
   · Syntaxic compound word + suffix: Syntaxic compounding method is performed first, followed by a suffix, which is a derivative word.
    · Breastfeeding-i: In'feeding', the suffix'i' is added to the syntactic compound word for which the survey'eul' is omitted.
    · Poetry-parent-nim: The compound word of'parent' has a prefix of'poetry-' and a suffix of'-nim' to become a derivative word.
    · Jangdol-Bangi: A syntactic compound word with the suffix ‘Bangi’ was added to the syntactic compound word for which the survey ‘Eul’ was omitted in ‘Go around the market’, and it became a derivative word.

   · Nonsynthetic compound words + suffix: Nonsynthetic compound words have been suffixed and become a derivative word again.
    · Nadeul-i: The suffix'-i' is added to a non-syntactic compound word in which the ending'go' is omitted from'me and listen' to become a derivative word.
    Open and close: In'open and close', the ending'-i' is added to the nonsyntactic compound word in which the ending'go' is omitted.

   · Root + suffix of repetitive compound words: A compound word made of repetitive words has a suffix and becomes a derivative word again. Monthly-this, house-to-house, etc.

  N. Synthesis of derivative words: A compound word that has experienced the derivative method.
   · Canned-boiled: The noun affix'-ㅁ' was added to the root of'jorida', and it became a compound word with the noun'bottle', which is a noun.
   Oiji-Miss: Oiji (a compound word of cucumber+ji, both are nouns) + marinated (noun + noun affix'-ㅁ')
   · Spell-Method: Custom (fit + noun affix'-ㅁ') + method (real photo)
   · Nose-laugh: Nose + laughter (laugh + noun, affix'um')
   · Sun-rise: sun + rise (raise + noun, affix'i')
    * If the last ending of a compound word or derivative word ends with'ㄹ' and the next morpheme is'ㄴ, ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ', the'ㄹ' in the front end is eliminated. At last, son, casement, arrow, mussoorie, etc.

  C. Distinguishing Chinese characters
   · Derivation method: prefix (non-human, unconditional), suffix (Lee, human, expert)
   · Synthesis method: pitch, body, guile, illiteracy, communion

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