[Public Officials Korean] 2. Korean

Last Updated: February 24, 2019 Categories: , , Tags:

Korean

Korean

 * The Korean language is'Altai' in the systematic form,'additional language' in terms of form, and the phonetic character in literal terms.

1. Characteristics of Korean grammar

 1) Subject + adjective + verb in order, and modifiers come before the modifier.
 2) It has an additive character of body language + irradiation, stem + mother.
 3) There is no gender distinction, but the concept of plural is unclear.
 4) There are no articles, relative pronouns, prepositions, and conjunctions.
  * However, there are no conjunctions here Conjunctive adverbIs used. And, however, so etc...

  * Part of speech: A branch of words divided by function, form, and meaning. In Korea's school grammar, it is classified into nine categories: nouns, pronouns, rhetoric, investigation, verbs, adjectives, tube detectives, adverbs, and interjections. Part of speech does not change by ending, but can change by affixes.

  * Sentence Components: These are the elements that make up one sentence. There are subject, predicate, object, bore, formal word, adverb, and independent language. It varies depending on the situation, status, and role played.

 5) Often, elements of sentences are omitted.
 6) The predicate comes at the end of the sentence. That is, the key situation comes to the end.

2. The phonological characteristics of the Korean language

 1) There are many short vowels. There are a total of 10.
 2) The bursting sound and the sibilant sound form trigeminal correlation.
  * Three-pointed correlation: It refers to the formation of confrontation with the sound of yesa, the sound, and the harsh sound.
 3) The difference in sound image differentiates the meaning as well as the speech.
 4) The difference between the meaning and the sense of the word is indicated by the length of the sound. The distinction between sound r and l of sound ㄹ is unclear.
 5) Mediated consonants and mediated vowels are used. There are many other phonological phenomena.

3. Characteristics of Korean vocabulary

 1) Among foreign words, there are many borrowed words, especially Chinese characters. It's a little over 50 per. And in modern Korean languages, the borrowing of Western foreign languages is increasing.
 2) Honorific words have developed due to the influence of social structure.
 3) There are many color words and sense words.
 4) Phonetic symbols such as onomatopoeia and mimicry are very developed.
 5) The vocabulary representing kinship has developed. This is because there is a blood-related accident. This is also the basis for explaining the linguistic view of thought. This is because the more you use these words, the stronger your blood relationship becomes.

* Etymology study

 1) Folk language original theory: It originates from a similar pronunciation. It is also referred to as the etymology of language play. However, this is also the subject of Korean language purification. This is because it was not originally from this etymology, but it is used only because the pronunciation is similar. For example, a cloth skirt (not a dishwasher that we commonly know...), thunder (we will cry> cry> thunder. Absolutely empty lightning thunder... not like this), bull (absolute yellow yellow. No, it means a big cow)

 2) Scientific etymology research
  · Downtown: room (meaning valley) + thousand (my cloth) -> that is, indoors -> downtown.
  · Five: close, ten: open -> close with five fingers, close with ten, bloom... At first glance, it sounds like folk etymology, but this is scientifically sound.

* Korean language purification

 1. Reasons for Korean language purification
  1) To suppress the reaction of words. This is because if you make words difficult, your character will also be difficult.
  2) To restore a sense of community.
  3) To reflect the world image of our nation. If you have a lot of good words, you seem to have a high-class culture.

 2. Target of Korean language purification
  1) Japanese -> 100% is purified.
Wasabi (horseradish), sushi (sushi), Sara (plate), Yoji (toothpick), Soba (buckwheat noodles), Dadaegi (chopped seasoning), Yaki dumplings (Roasted dumplings), Gabon (Basting), Apprenticeship (training), and wages (Poom Wage), Charter (Chonse), Wash (Tax), Childbirth (Dissolution), Balance (Balance), Account (Account), Iseo (Endorse), Na Daeji (Empty House), Eighteen (Favorite Song), Generation (Furniture), Gosu site (Dunchi, Gangteok), notice (notification, notice), senior (senior), share (share), specification (manual), specification (manual), temporary building (temporary building), live broadcast (on-site broadcasting), dandori ( Preparation, crackdown), blue (dark blue, indigo blue), anago (conger eel), eel (black eel), Jeongjong (cheongju)

  2) difficult Chinese characters
Scattering dust (flying dust), do not touch tentacles (do not touch), end (finally), unknown Buddha (not not), inevitable (inevitable), indispensable (indispensable), indivisible (indivisible)

  3) Western language
Discount (overcharge), master plan (basic plan), synergy effect (increased effect), infrastructure (infrastructure)

  4) Vocabulary
Ayu, profanity, profanity, foreign language (100% purified), some foreign languages, etc.

* Type of language

1. Kind by etymology
  1) Native language: This is a native language that our people have used since ancient times. There are no Chinese characters, and they are words that have been used since ancient times. Thought, Gohorn, Sinabro, Dihi (Korean word for Kimchi. Not dimchae...)

  2) Foreign language
   G. Naturalized language: Although the etymology is a foreign language, it is a language that has acquired the status as a Korean language because it is not even known as a foreign language.
        Chinese characters: Kimchi, Chinese cabbage, red pepper, anyway, cotton, beast, potato, jajang, paper, brush, inkstone
        Mongolian: Horses (gara horses, hollow horses, etc.), falcons (bora mae, peregrine falcon, sura, etc.)
        Manju, Yeojin: Homi, Sorghum, Meju, Scissors, Tuman (river), etc.
        Beomeo: Temple, Middle, Mandala, Buddha, Buddha, Bodhisattva, Sari, etc.
        Japanese: sweet potato, shoes, pot, etc.
        Western language: rubber, tobacco, bread, bag, Nampo, etc.

   N. Borrowed Words: Words from foreign countries that do not have Korean language yet. These are the objects of Korean language purification. Dress, announcer, lens, pin, tie, computer, television, etc.

  3) Foreign Languages: These are the words that are spoken despite the presence of Korean. Of course, it is the subject of Korean language purification. Vacation, trouble, trick, number, musical, leader, test, part-time job, etc...

 2. Types according to society
  1) Standard language: These are words that become the standard and basic language within a country.
   G. Three characteristics of standard language
    · Ideality: This is the ideal word that the society pursues.
    · Normativeness: It has the property of controlling speech with certain norms.
    · Commonality: These are words that are publicly used in the society.

   N. Setting: The 1936 Korean Language Society's'Correct Korean Standard Vocabulary Collection' began.

   C. Standard language principles
    · Hierarchy condition: educated person
    · Conditions of the times: Modern
    · Geographical conditions: Seoul

   L. Standard Language Function
    · Function of unification: It is the most basic and representative function of standard language. If the differences between dialects are severe, communication may not be possible even in the same country. The standard language unites the citizens of a country as one through smooth communication, and allows them to have a sense of unity as the same citizen.

    · Function of superiority: Proper use of standard language indicates appropriate education. 

    · Reference function: The word is constantly changing, but the standard language becomes a kind of'standard'. It is said that the reversibility of language is not recognized until the next enactment.

    · Function of Independence: It is a function that enables us to realize our nation and our nation, which is differentiated from other countries or nations by using a unified language.

  2) Dialect: Regional dialects are not subject to national language purification. That is, you can use it. The presence of dialects enriches the vocabulary of our language and creates an emotional bond between people who speak the same dialect. In addition, it makes use of realism and realism in literature, and because it has a trace of old words, it is also used as a material for archaic studies.

   · As for the language regulation, the standard language is basically used. This is especially the case in official settings. However, in private settings, dialects are also allowed.

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