[Public Officials English] 8. Gerund
A gerund, a gerund, is a noun that functions as a verb. Even without a preposition, it takes an object immediately, and sometimes it is accompanied by a bore or an adverb (phrase).
1. Usage of gerund
- Noun usage
A gerund can be a subject, an object, or a bore by functioning as a noun, and it can also receive expressions such as articles, adjectives, possessives, etc., and can be plural.
ex) Teaching requires tact.
She avoided making any promise.
Doing nothing is being idle.
- Gerund with a verbal character / Gerund with a noun character
- Gerunds have both functions of verbs and nouns, but they cannot have both at the same time. In other words, a noun gerund can immediately accompany an object, but it cannot accompany an article or a preposition, and a noun gerund does not immediately accompany an object, so a preposition is required.
ex) Writing letter is a good exercise in English composition. -> It is a verbal function.
The Writing of letters is a good exercise in English composition. -> This is a noun function.
2. Verb characteristics of gerunds
- Subject in the meaning of the gerund
When the actor of the gerund is an ordinary person or is the same as the subject or object, the subject in the meaning is not used, and the subject in the meaning of the gerund uses a possessive before the gerund to indicate the subject in meaning. In addition, in the case of an inanimate noun that cannot make a possessive, if the subject in the meaning is more than two words, and if the proper noun is the subject in the meaning, it is indicated as an object.
ex) I am fond of fishing. -> Subject I is the subject in the meaning of fishing.
My mother doesn't like my going such a place. -> Used as the object of a transitive verb.
- The tense and form of the gerund
One). Simple verbs indicate when the action of the gerund coincides with the action of the main verb or is later than that of the main verb, and is expressed in the form of'verb circle + ~ing', and the complete verb is'having + p. Represented in the form of .p'.
ex) I'm sorry for your not having come with us. -> It is a perfect verb.
He is proud of having won the prize last year. -> This is ahead of the main verb.
* Remember, forget, regret, blame, punish, accuse, deny, etc. are simple verbs and replace complete verbs.
ex) I remember visiting the temple in youth.
2) Active gerund (doing/having done) is used when the subject in meaning is used as the subject of an action, and passive gerund (being + past participle / had been + past participle) is used when the subject in meaning is used as the object of an action. It's possible.
ex) She hates disturbing others. -> It is active.
She hates being disturbed. -> Manual.
* Difference between infinitive and gerund
1. Infinitives represent things you have not done yet (future), and gerunds represent things you have already done or done (past).
ex) They promised to return to visit everyone. -> He promised to come back.
Verbs such as expect, decide, promise, attempt, offer, accept, refuse, seek, propose, afford + to v
Verbs such as finish, stop, quit, give up, leave off, admit, deny, regret, excuse + -ing
2. Infinitives indicate uncertain and ambiguous things, and gerunds indicate definite and obvious things. Even in the past, uncertain things are expressed as infinitives (complete), and even in the future, definitive things are expressed as gerunds (simple).
ex) He pretended to have seen so-and-so in the concert.
3. Infinitives represent individual facts, and gerunds represent universal facts.
ex) He enjoyed looking up at the stars in the night sky.
3. Preposition To + ~ing
- be opposed to: Oppose
= object to + ~ing
= have an objection to
ex) I am very much opposed to going there.
* He objected to being treated like this. -> Originally, I would just use ing, but since the relationship with the treat is a passive relationship, I use being + pp.
- Contribute to + ~ing: Contribute to, contribute to
ex) He contributed to the growth of the city.
- turn one's attention to + ~ing (noun) : To pay attention to, to pay attention to
ex) He did not turn his attention to making a fortune until he was forty.
- with a view to + ~ing: To (=for the purpose)
ex) I study English with a view to going abroad.
- be equal to + ~ing: Have the ability to
ex) I am equal to doing the task.
- devote A to B (noun) : Dedicate A to B
ex) He devoted all his time to studying history.
- be used to + ~ing: Familiar with
ex) I am used to playing the piano.
= I am accustomed to playing the piano.
- what do you say to + ~ing: How about doing ~?
ex) What do you say to playing tennis with me?
- take to + ~ing: Indulge in, affectionate
ex) He took to writing after he retired from the college.
- look forward to + ~ing: To look forward to
ex) I am looking forward to seeing you again.
- fall to + ~ing: To start
ex) They fell to discussing the serious problem.
4. Idiomatic expression of gerund
- Impossible phrase
· There is no + ~ing: Cannot do
ex) There is no knowing what may happen.
= It is impossible to know what may happen.
= We cannot know what may happen.
- It is no use + ~ing: It is useless to ~.
ex) It is no use crying over spilt milk.
= It is of no use to cry over spilt milk.
- of one's own + ~ing: Self-doing
ex) This is a picture of my own painting.
- It goes without saying that health is above wealth.
= It is needless to say
= It is a matter of course
= It is not too much to say
- can't help ~ing: Can't help but
cannot (help, choose) but + Verb prototype: I have no choice but to do
have no choice (alternative) but + to R
ex) I cannot help admiring his courage.
- on + ~ing = as soon as (when) + subject + verb: as soon as ~, when ~
in + ~ing = when + subject + verb: when ~
ex) As soon as he received the letter he turned pale.
= On (his) receiving the letter, he turned pale.
= He had no sooner received the letter than he turned pale.
= No sooner had he received the letter, than he turned pale.
- Want, Need: If you use ~ing, it is passive.
- be busy with + noun : Busy, busy
= be busy (in) + ~ing
ex) He was busy (in) tidying up his desk.
- feel like + ~ing: Have an idea of wanting to
= feel inclined + to do
ex) I feel like sleeping now.
- What do you say to + ~ing? : How about ~?
ex) Let's play baseball after lunch, shall we?
= What do you say to playing baseball after lunch?
- be on the point of + ~ing: Just about to ~, about to ~
ex) He was on the point of being drowned.
= on the verge of, on the brink of, on the edge of
- cannot ~ without ... ing: ...Without doing
cannot ~ but ... (s+v): If ...Do
ex) Whenever I meet him, I think of his brother.
= I never meet him without thinking of his brother.
- be worth ~ing: Worth doing
= be worth while + Gerund, infinitive
= be worthy of + gerund, noun
ex) This book is worth reading.
It is worth while to read this book.
- make a point of + ~ing: Make ~ as a rule / It is a habit to do ~.
ex) I make a point of getting up early.
= I am in the habit of getting up early.
- come near + ~ing: It's almost like ~
= go near + ~ing
= nearly escape + ~ing
ex) He came near being drowned.
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