The development of the three kingdoms
[Korean History for Public Officials] 6. Development of Ancient Society 2. Development of Three Kingdoms
1. 4th century
- Micheonwang (300~331): In the 4th century, Goguryeo actively pursued external expansion in the wake of the chaos of the 5th and 16th countries in China. The Micheon King captured and secured Seoanpyeong, and completely ousted Nakranggun. As a result, we restored the old land of Goguryeo and laid a foothold to advance south outside the middle stream of the Yalu River.
- King Gogukwon (331~371): During the reign of King Gogukwon, the palace was burned, the corpse of Micheon King was stolen, and 50,000 men and women were taken captive when the palace was invaded by Jeonyeong Mo Yong-Hwang (342). In the 41st year (371) of King Gogukwon, he was attacked by King Geunchogo of Baekje The fall of PyongyangThen, the King Gokukwon died.
- King Soorim (371~384): King Soorim Buddhist official (372), Establishment of Taehak, Promulgation of the decreeThrough (373), etc., we tried to strengthen the system as a centralized state while effectively controlling the tribal forces scattered throughout the region. This means that Goguryeo at that time actively embraced China's high-end culture and grew into a higher-level ancient noble nation.
- King Geunchogo (346~375): Baekje conquered the Mahan forces and reached the southern coast of Jeolla-do. In the north, King Gogukwon was killed while confronting Goguryeo over the Hwanghae-do region. Also, he exercised control over Gaya in the Nakdong River basin. It now encompasses Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, Jeolla-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Gangwon-do, and Hwanghae-do. Based on the military and economic power accumulated through the conquest of Baekje, Advance to Liaoxi Province of ChinaAnd then Advances to the Shandong region and the Kyushu region of JapanAnd engaged in active external activities. By connecting the trade bases established in the Yoseo area with the Baekje-based forces located in the Korean Peninsula and Japan, they formed an ancient commercial network, thereby playing a central role in trade.
Baekje's kingship gradually became a premise, Succession to the throne by inheritance of the richHas begun. The queen family was also fixed as Jin among the eight noble surnames. On the other hand, during the king of Geunchogo, he made a doctor to goheung, Compile the clerkOne thing would have meant to show off the aspect of a reinforced kingship and an improved state. This book later became the mother of the Japanese book.
In addition to this, Chiljido, the sword given to King Wae in the 24th year of King Geunchogo (369), shows that King Geunchogo considered King Wae as his reign. StillWent to Japan to teach Chinese characters to the prince, KingIt was also during this period that he delivered these thesis and cheonjamun and taught scholarship. In 372, an envoy was sent to Dongjin, and from Dongjin, he was rebuked by General Dongjin, Young Nakrang Taesu.
- King of Chimryu (384~385): In the first year of the King of Chimryu (384), Buddhism was recognized and ideologically supported the central government system.
- King Naemul: In the 44th year of King Naemul (399), a Japanese soldier entered the border and requested military aid from Goguryeo. The following year, Silla destroyed the Japanese army with the army of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo. Goguryeo is believed to have stationed troops in the territory of Silla with the cause of Silla's salvation and protection.
Goguryeo expanded the influence of Goguryeo by interfering with the internal affairs of Silla based on this garrison. Shilla grew by indirectly accepting Chinese culture through Goguryeo.
* Heavy rain bowl : The Howoomyeong vessel was excavated from the Howoochong in Gyeongju, and the words'Eulmyo Year Gukgangsang Gwanggae Land Hotaewang Hoship' is engraved on the bottom of the vessel, showing the relationship between Silla and Goguryeo at the time.
2. 5th century
Goguryeo, which reorganized the central government system based on the reforms of King Soorim's time, attempted to expand outside the country in the 5th century.
- King Gwanggaeto (391~413): King Gwanggaeto attacked Baekje, captured several castles, crossed the Han River, and advanced to the capital of Baekje. The defeated Baekje surrendered by offering 1,000 men and women and 1,000 good bets. Goguryeo expanded its territory to the banks of the Han River. In addition, he carried out a large-scale conquest of Manchuria, intervened in the rivalry between Silla, Wae, and Gaya, and repelled Wae, who invaded Silla. Influence to the southern part of the Korean PeninsulaCaused.
King Gwanggaeto established his own name abjectionAfter he died, he received the title of'Kukgang Sanggwanggaeto Gyeongpyeonganho Taewang'.
* King Gwanggaeto attacked Hu-yeon to take Liao-dong and conquered Sukshin to the north. In the 10th year of King Gwanggaeto (400), King Hu-yeon, Mo Yong-seong, attacked Goguryeo under the pretext of his rudeness. Goguryeo retaliated against Hu-yeon's invasion and punished her.
- King Jangsu (413~491): King Jangsu went to Tong-gu, Family County, Manchuria in the 3rd year of King Jangsu (414) to commemorate King Gwanggaeto. Monument to the Great King GwanggaetoWas established. Also, the king of longevity PyongyangThe capital was moved to (427) and the system was reorganized to accommodate the increased territory. Pyongyang, on the banks of the Daedong River, had good conditions as a capital, and Cheondo was also a measure to weaken the existing nobility and strengthen the kingship. Feeling a crisis in Goguryeo’s South Korean policy, Baekje and Silla formed a Naje alliance and opposed it.
King Jangsu captured Hanseong, the capital of Baekje (475), including the entire Han River Namyang Bay from Jukryeong areaIt widened the game to the line that connects. Goguryeo's advance into the Han River basin is shown in the monuments of King Gwanggaeto and the monuments of Goguryeo in Jungwon.
Meanwhile, King Jangsu kept China in check by using a foreign policy to manipulate the two opposing forces while interacting with the Mongolian plateau and the Chinese inter-Korean ties respectively. Envoys were also dispatched to establish diplomatic relations with North Latitude in North China. When the king of Bukyeon entrusted him, the king of Jangsu kept the king of Bukyeon in the territory and treated him as his reign. In addition, with the strong national power in the background, it attempted to divide and occupy Ji Doo by Daeheunganryeong along with Yeonyeon.
- King Character (491~519): King Character Subjugation(494) and interfered with the combined operation of Baekje and Silla through the Naze Alliance.
* With continued external expansion, Goguryeo reigned as a loser in Northeast Asia. Goguryeo occupied vast territories over Manchuria and the Korean peninsula and formed a great empire with complete political systems, competing for power on an equal footing with China.
- King of Parables (427~455): In response to the south of Goguryeo, Naze Alliance(433) concluded.
- King Gaero (455~475): In the 18th year of King Gaero (472), an envoy sent an envoy to the north latitude to request military aid (King Gaero's state), but was attacked by King Jangsu. Hanseong fell(475) King Gaero was captured and killed.
- King Munju (475~477): King Munju was a natural fortress surrounded by the Charyeong Mountains and Geum River, driven by Goguryeo's active southward policy. WoongjinThe capital was relocated to (Gongju). (475) In addition, due to changes in the situation in China and Japan, trade activities were also stagnant, and economic difficulties were also encountered. In this process, the kingship is weakened, Noble forces lead the state administrationI did it.
- King Dongseong (479~501): From the time of King Dongseong in the late 5th century, Baekje began to stabilize society and restore national power again. After establishing diplomatic relations with the Chinese South Koreans (484), the following year, envoys were dispatched to Silla to establish diplomatic relations and gained public recognition. In order to strengthen the friendship with Silla, we welcomed the daughter of Silla's Lee Chan Biji by rain. Marriage alliance(493) was formed and joined with Silla to respond to Goguryeo. However, in order to exclude foreign powers and strengthen the kingship, the indigenous powers of the Woongjin region were hired, but rather, they were killed by the new powers (baek families).
- King Nulji (417~458): King Nulji entered into a Naje alliance with Baekje Biyu in order to escape from the interference of Goguryeo. Adora, a monk who came through Goguryeo during the time of King Nulji, first preached Buddhism, and after that, when Wonpyo, an envoy and monk from the Yang Dynasty, came to Gyeongju, Buddhism was first introduced to the royal family.
- King of Mercy (458~479): The capital was reorganized by setting the name of the royal palace (469). In addition, when King Jangsu of Goguryeo attacked Baekje, he gave out troops (475).
- King Soji (479~500): Woo Station (487) was installed in all directions, and Kwando, the main road in Korea, was repaired. Wang Gyeong-in opened Shisa (490) for the first time in Gyeongju, and distributed reifications everywhere.
3. 6th century
- King Yangwon (545~559): After the death of King Anwon, the two queens each tried to establish their own reviving prince as king, resulting in a military conflict between the forces supporting the two princes. In addition, when the stone walls attacked Goguryeo's divinity and Baekam Castle, a lot of Goguryeo's national power was consumed in the process of defeating them. Eventually, the Han River basin was captured by the allied forces between Silla and Baekje (551).
- Aristocratic alliance system: Amidst the unstable government, the kingship was rapidly weakened, and the influential nobles took the lead in political management and established a nobility alliance regime. The aristocratic council was the most central body running the nobility alliance regime. The chairman of the aristocratic council was from generation to generation, the position of overseeing state administration. The nobles took control of political operations by adjusting power relations in the process of their appointment from generation to generation.
- King Muryeong (501~523): King Muryeong Dispatching royal families to 22 dam roads in the provinceBy doing so, we have strengthened control over the provinces. This laid the foundation for the revival of Baekje.
When Goguryeo captured Gabulseong and Wonsanseong Fortress and plundered it, King Muryeong himself advanced to the north of Wicheon with 3,000 soldiers and defeated the Goguryeo army significantly (512). In addition, the influence of Baekje was expanded by actively advancing into the Gaya area by dominating and belonging to the Seomjin basin from Namwon and Imsil to Hadong. Meanwhile, among the North and South Korean dynasties, Harmony with the yang dynastyAnd stabilized the country. Baekje military history of the monologue from the sheep in 521General YeongdongHas been commissioned by
- Seongwang (523~554): Seongwang is easy to advance to the outside world. Wasabi (grant)Moved to (538). Since Woongjin was a temporary capital to avoid attacks from Goguryeo, it was necessary to build a new capital in a wider area in order to prepare a new base for development in Baekje. Another King Seong The national number to the south He tried to revitalize it while fixing it. The 22nd department of the central government office, the 5th capital of the capital, and the provinces improved the 5th system and promoted Buddhism.
Seongwang actively interacts with the South Korean Yang of China, Norisachi systemHe also dispatched a group to spread Buddhism to Japan (552). Seongwang temporarily restored the Han River basin (551) by uniting with Silla due to unstable internal affairs in Goguryeo (553), but was soon taken away by Silla (553). King Seong mobilized 30,000 troops including Baekje and Daegaya and 1,000 Japanese soldiers to attack Silla (554). Warrior in GuanshanI did.
- King Jijeung (500~514): The first time when King Jijeung Plowing with cattleBegan, and it became an opportunity for the agricultural productivity to grow significantly. In addition, we have secured a population for farming by prohibiting planting. Also, the national name was changed to Silla, and the title of the king was also kingI fixed it. And the administrative districts of the capital and provinces were organized. Externally Subjugated Usan-guk (Ulleungdo)(512).
- King Beopheung (514~540): King Beopheung Install the bottle(517), the king seized military power, promulgated decrees, and enacted a white official's emptiness (520), ranking nobles as bureaucrats. Through this, the governing order was established and the centralized state system was completed. Uljin Bongpyeong Shillabi (524) is an important relic that shows the improvement of the national system of King Beopheung. Also, King Beopheung Install opponents(531) was given the same status as the prime minister. The bone system was organized and the martyrdom of Cha-don Lee (527) Accredited buddhism(535) and attempted to embrace the new and growing forces. KunwonIt has also raised its status as an independent nation by using its own name (536).
King Beopheung established a marriage alliance (522) through Baekje with the Yang Dynasty of the South Dynasty of China. Meanwhile, Geumgwan-gukju Kim Gu-hae, along with his three sons, surrendered to Silla, thereby merging Geumgwan-gaya in the Gimhae region (532), paving the way to advance to the Nakdong River.
- King Jinheung (540~576): Shilla began to lead the uprising between the three kingdoms by strengthening the internal solidarity and carrying out active conquest activities in the 6th century when King Jinheung was in the 6th century.
King Jinheung to the roughbu Compilation of national history(545). Pumju was installed as central control (565), and Kukwonkyung (557), Sabeolju, Hsinju (553), Bisabeolju, and Nonyeolhoju (556) were installed in local areas. King Jinheung in order to cultivate talents for national development Reorganized Hwarangdo into a national organizationI did it. In addition, the Buddhist denomination was reorganized to promote ideological integration.
King Jinheung formed an alliance with Baekje and attacked Goguryeo, taking 10 troops from the upper reaches of the Han River (551). Since then, the area below the Han River was taken away from Baekje (553). King Jinheung called himself a king thanks to the expansion of national power 'Country'He also used his own chronology (551). King Jinheung Take control of the Han River basinAs a result, it strengthened its economic base, secured a strategic base, and laid an advantageous foothold for direct trade with China through the Yellow Sea. This will serve as an opportunity for Silla to take the lead in the Three Kingdoms competition.
King Jinheung advanced to the Hamgyeong-do area and integrated the old Okjeo and Dongye. To the south, he conquered Goryeong's Daegaya (562) and conquered the west of the Nakdong River. King Jinheung and monarchs of all sides gathered in the Changnyeong area to demonstrate armed forces (561), and the army led by Isabu attacked and captured Daegaya, the base of the Gaya Federation (562). The facts about King Jinheung's conquest activities can be found through the pure monuments established in Danyang Jeokseongbi (551), Bukhansan (555), Changnyeong (561), Ma Unryeong (568) and Hwang Choryeong (568). It can be seen that through the Danyang Aptitude Monument, it took control of the upper stream of the Han River, the lower Han River through the Bukhansanbi, and advanced to Hamgyeongnam-do through the Maunryeongbi and Hwangchoryeongbi.
- Golden stone gates
Jungwon Goguryeobi: The only Goguryeo monument on the Korean Peninsula (Chungju)As a result, the Goguryeo army is stationed in the territory of Silla. In addition Silla is called Dong It was called, and this shows the view of the world of Goguryeo at that time.
Monument to the Great King Gwanggaeto: Built by King Jangsu in 414, it is located in the former Goguryeo capital, Domestic Province (now Jilin Province, Jilin Province). The blank face of the tomb was rediscovered by a Qing farmer around 1880.
Housing site cost: In the case of the chairman, There is a story that the rain left behind, groaning of growing old, returned to Buddhism and built a temple.
Uljin Bongpyeong Sillabi: There is a specific content of the rule. King Beopheung, the king, refers to Takbu, and his younger brother, King Sabujigalmun, refers to the trustee. There are also information on the 17th building, etc.
Bukhansanbi: In the 16th year of King Sunjo, Kim Jeong-hee was accidentally discovered while going to a Buddhist temple in Bukhansan.
Changnyeongbi: Penalties for criminal acts in economic relations such as land and forests are specified. In addition to major government offices in the center, such as King Galmun and opponents, you can find the names of important local government offices and the influential people (villains).
Monument to Hwang Choryeong: This monument was transferred by observer Yoon Jeong-hyeon in the 3rd year of King Cheoljong (1852), showing that King Jinheung vs. Silla's Northeast Gyeongsang reached Hamheung area.
Maunryeongbi: This is the rain that Choi Nam-seon confirmed that it was the pure secret of King Jinheung and introduced it widely. King Jinheung expanded the territory to Hamheung, Hamgyeong Province.Shows.
Namsan Shinseongbi: You can find out the dosa, villagers, etc., who are government officials related to the Silla local government.
Pregnancy Seo Ki-seok: Confucianism was widely accepted in SillaIt is a specific material that informs you.
- Formation of an alliance: In the 12 countries in the lower reaches of the Nakdong River, agricultural productivity increased based on the iron culture before and after the BC, and various political groups began to appear through gradual social integration. These include Geumgwan Gaya (Bon Gaya) in Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Aragaya in Haman, Sogaya in Goseong, Goryeong Gaya in Hamchang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Grand Gaya of Goryeong, and Seongsangaya in Seongju. In fact, it turns out that there were about 10 small countries in the Gaya area.
- Electricity Gaya Federation: Electricity Gaya Federation was established in the 3rd century It's a gold crownBecame the center and developed into an alliance kingdom. Geumgwangaya, the leader of the federation, was founded by Geumsu-ro (42), and its power spans the Nakdong River basin. In Geumgwangaya, iron was produced and farmland became fertile, and rice farming was successful. And with the development of maritime transportation, it could become the centerpiece of the alliance.
However, from the early 4th century, the Gaya Alliance began to weaken due to the expansion of Baekje and Silla. In the second half of the 4th century, when the conquest of Baekje became active during King Geunchogo, Gaya came under the rule of Baekje. In the late 4th and early 5th centuries, after being attacked by the Goguryeo army that supported Silla, the central power of Gaya was disbanded, and the Gaya area was reduced to the west coast of the Nakdong River. With the dissolution of the Gaya Alliance, the Southeastern region centered on Gimhae and Changwon weakened.
- Late Gaya Alliance: The forces of Goryeong, Hapcheon, Geochang, and Hamyang in the northern regions, which had been underdeveloped, maintained their own territory. In the late 5th century It's a master in the Goryeong region.As the new leader, the Late Gaya Alliance was formed. While the number and size of tombs declined in the coastal area of Gyeongsangnam-do, more and more tombs were built in the mountainous areas in the inland of Gyeongsang-do, which reflects that.
The Goryeong region had high agricultural productivity, well inherited the predecessor culture of Gaya, and excellent seasonality. In the 5th century, it developed rapidly with the development of iron production sites due to the spread of advanced culture on the Gyeongnam coast. From the end of the 5th to the beginning of the 6th century, Daegaya further pursued territorial development to the west, and advanced beyond the Sobaek Mountains to Namwon and Imsil, Jeolla Province, and fought on a par with Baekje and Silla. While confronting Baekje in the process of expanding its territory, Baekje sought to trade with Wae directly without intervening Gaya. Daegaya was alienated from the international order centered on Baekje, and he tried to escape from international isolation by forming a marriage alliance with Silla. However, in the first half of the 6th century, the Daegaya Alliance Kingdom was invaded by Baekje and Silla, and began to shrink from the southern region.
- Destruction of Gaya: When the southern small nations of Gaya distrusted Daegaya and formed an alliance kingdom around Geumgwan Gaya, King Beopheung of Silla merged, fearing that the forces of Baekje and Why would affect the region (532). The southern region of Gaya was divided and occupied by Silla and Baekje.
Daegaya broke up within itself, weakened its power, and was destroyed during the reign of King Jinheung in Silla (562), and the Gaya Alliance was completely disbanded.
Gaya failed to achieve political development as a centralized state like the Three Kingdoms. This is because it was located in the middle of Baekje and Silla regionally, and became a battlefield between the two countries, and the unstable political situation continued under pressure from these countries.
- Gaya's economy and culture: Gaya's small countries developed a farming culture from early on, such as cultivating rice. In particular, the Daegaya Alliance Kingdom in areas such as Goryeong and Hapcheon had well-equipped farming conditions. In addition Production of abundant ironAnd using sea transportation Relay trade linking Nakrang and the Kyushu region of WaeHas developed. Gaya is close to Kyushu, Japan, so many people moved to Kyushu to establish a small country.
Gaya was greatly prospered by the spread of earthenware manufacturing technology from the coastal region of Gyeongnam and the creation of handicrafts. Gaya's earthenware has been handed down to Japan Direct influence on Sueki earthenwareAlso gave.
The ancient tombs of Jisan-dong Goryeong and Bukcheon-dong of Busan are famous as ruins showing Gaya culture. Gold and copper tubes, iron weapons and armor, and earthenware were unearthed from these tombs, showing a high level of Gaya culture. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the burial was carried out in the 45th minute of Jisan-dong, Goryeong and Gyo-dong, Changnyeong.
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