[Korean History for Public Officials] 4. Formation of a country 3. Growth of various countries

Last Updated: March 14, 2019 Categories: , , Tags:

Multinational growth

The formation of the country 3. The growth of many countries. Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Dongye, Samhan, etc.

1. Late Iron Age

1) formation process

 There was a Jin in the south around the 2nd century B.C. when the Wiman Joseon was in existence, and it seems that the Samhan of Mahan, Byeonhan, and Jinhan were formed. In the first century BC, the three kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla co-existed with Buyeo, Dongye, and Okjeo.

2) power generation

 The Mokji-guk of Buyeo and Mahan has reached the level of the Alliance Kingdom, calling them kings. Since then, Dongye, Okje, and Samhan’s small countries Without reaching the level of the alliance kingdom It was integrated into Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Gaya.
 In Buyeo and early Goguryeo, Go, the priceThere were powerful people called as. They ruled the towns and villages through Homin, while taking part in politics with their own management and military power. Homins were economically wealthy people, and villages were governed by masters as a unit of living under the presidency of Homin. HahoWas a commoner engaged in farming. They lived under the domination of Homin and local governments. On the other hand, there were slaves at the bottom of towns and villages, who were subordinate to their owners and lived.

2. Grant

1) Buyeo's Politics

 Buyeo is the second country to appear after Gojoseon. Buyeo was founded by the Yemaek tribe in the vast plains of the upper reaches of the Songhua River, centering around Jilin City in Manchuria. The territory of the pre-war period, the heyday of Buyeo, was a vast country extending from south of the Heilong River to the north, from Mt. Baekdu to the upper reaches of Liao River to the south, and to the coastal region to the east.

 Buyeo already used the royal family in the early 1st century. The power of the representative tribe from which the king came out was very strong and had facilities such as palaces, castles, prisons, and warehouses. When the king dies, he asks many people NetThere were customs.

 Buyeo, named after the cattle under the king Management of Mark, Uga, Low Price, Kugawa Ambassador, Lion, etc.There was. Each of these goes separately Jujudo, an administrative divisionRuled by the king, Part 5Achieved. It is said that the scale of the area governed by the family counts thousands or hundreds. In the early days of Buyeo, major national policies were decided by a council of families. The nobles debated important matters of the country, and they tried to execute or release sinners. The kings were also elected to the kings, and if they were not well dressed due to flood or cold weather, they also asked the king to take responsibility.

 Buyeo also established friendly relations with China's Han, Wei, and Jin in order to contain the Zenbei tribe in the north and Goguryeo in the south. Buyeo's country declined due to constant invasion of the Zenbei in the 3rd-4th century AD, but was incorporated into Goguryeo in 494 (King of Munhwa). Although Buyeo perished at the stage of the Alliance Kingdom, its historical significance is very large. The reason is that the founding powers of Goguryeo and Baekje claimed to be a branch of Buyeo, and their founding myths are based on the same prototype.

2) Buyeo's Society

 In Buyeo's status system, first, there was a noble family, the ruling class called Homin, and Min, Haho, and Nobi at the bottom. The slaves were made up of families of prisoners of war, debtors or murderers, and were owned by more than the favourites. When war broke out, Homin and Min were armed and fought, and Haho was not able to participate in the battle and was in charge of supplying food.

 According to Buyeo's law, the murderer is typically executed and his family is a slave. 12 times the value of the item when stealing someone else'sIt is said that a person who commits adultery and a wife who is highly speculative will be put to death. It can be seen that this is similar to the 8th Chosun of Gojoseon.
 Meanwhile, in Buyeo, when the older brother dies, Criminal collection systemWas widely practiced. The custom of drinking spirits was practiced not only in Xiongnu, but also in ancient China, and also in Goguryeo. This was an institutional arrangement for the replenishment of human resources, and aimed at advocating the family system by preventing the separation of the deceased brother's property from the young child.
 The customs of Buyeo YounggoThere was a Jecheon event called. A tradition of hunting societyIt was held in December to show. At this time, I enjoyed singing and dancing while offering sacrifices to heaven.

3) Buyeo's economy and customs

 Buyeo mainly focused on farming and pasturing. The names of officials after livestock also show that pastures were successful. Horses, furs, and gems were famous as special products. The Buyeos worshiped white and loved to wear white clothes, but they wore jackets, outerwear, and pants, and leather shoes, and when they went abroad, they wore gorgeous silk clothes embroidered with silk. Both men and women were white.

 When the war broke out, the Buyeos practiced Jecheon rituals, killed cows and used their hooves to fortune telling. This Dominant point methodIs called.

 On the other hand, it was a common custom in ancient society to believe in the immortality of the soul and to make funerals generous. People generally did assholes, thinking that when they die, they do not lose their souls, but that they lead to another world. Also, when the owner dies, the nobi is buried alive together. Net There was a system, but in many cases it reached about 100 people. Since five months have passed since his death in Yeo, Sangju knew it as manners that he did not try to end his business quickly, but was forced by others. And in the summer, ice was used to prevent decay of the body, and he also worked as a manager.

3. Goguryeo

1) The founding and development of Goguryeo

 According to the records of the Samguksagi, Goguryeo was founded by Jumong, who descended from Buyeo to the south (37 BC). Goguryeo is located in the Jolbon (Hwanin) region of the Dongga River, a tributary of the Yalu River. Geographically, it was a transportation hub, connected to Liaodong in the west, the east coast in the east, the Songhwa River basin in the north, and the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula in the south. However, since most of this area was a mountainous region with large mountains and deep valleys, the farmland was scarce, so even though hard work was hard, food was insufficient, and the predatory economy developed.

 From the early days of its founding, Goguryeo tried to conquer the surrounding small countries and advance into the plains. In 3 AD, the capital was moved to the domestic castle (house) of the Yalu River, and it developed as a basis for the 5-tribe alliance. Goguryeo not only advanced to the Liaodong region by invading the Gunhyeon of Han in an active conquest war, but also received a tribute by conquering Okjeo over the Bujeon plateau to the east.

2) 5 tribal alliance

 The fifth part of Goguryeo was Gyerubu, Sonobu, Jeolnobu, Sunnobu, and Kwannobu. Like Buyeo, Goguryeo is also under the king The price of shopping malls, peppers, etc.There were all over the place Lion, condolence, ancestor I took care of my back. Important state affairs were handled by the king, the royal family and the masters of wealth. If there was a serious criminal, I was sentenced to death through a meeting, and the family was a slave.

3) Goguryeo customs

 In Goguryeo Seo Okje (Derilsawije)There was a custom called. After a man marries, he lives at his wife's house for a certain period of time before returning to the man's house to live. I built a small house called Seook at the woman's house, and only took my wife and daughter to my home after the children grew up. This is also defined as a service marriage in the sense that the son-in-law served the labor force while staying with the wife for a long time.
 The Goguryeo people served as ancestors by serving Jumong, the founding founder of the country, and his mother, Yuhwa, as ancestors. In addition, he had a magnificent funeral and consumed all the gold and silver offerings for the funeral. Stones were piled up to make a tomb, and pine and pine trees were spread around them.

4. Okjeo and Dongye

1) Characteristics of Okjeo and Dongye

 Each village in Okjeo and Dongye Townor SamroThere was a military commander called, who ruled his tribe, but they did not form a large political force. Okjeo and Dongye, located on the east coast in the northern part of Hamgyeong-do and Gangwon-do, were skewed toward the periphery, so the acceptance of advanced culture was late, and under pressure from Goguryeo from early on, they did not grow significantly.
 Okjeo, who had been subordinated to Gojoseon, went under the branches of Imdun-gun and Nak-rang-gun when Hansa-gun was established, and the chiefs were called Hu, Eup-gun, and Sam-ro. When Goguryeo became strong, it is said that during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, King Taejo was subjugated to Goguryeo, carrying souvenirs, and walking the Cheonri Road and offering it to Goguryeo as a public offering. Dongye was also subjugated to Gojoseon and later entered the ranks of the Han 4th Army, but later merged into Goguryeo.

2) Okzer

 Okjeo was rich in seafood such as fish and salt, and the land was fertile, so the farming was good. There are few cattle and horses in terms of customs, and the preservation was good. Okjeo is a branch of the Buyeo tribe like Goguryeo, and the food, housing, clothing, and manners were similar to those of Goguryeo, but the customs of funeral and marriage were different.

 Daughter-in-lawWas a kind of trading soul. When life is poor and cannot raise a daughter, it is assumed that they will become a wife in the future, and then go to the man's house and grow up to become an adult, returning to his father's family, paying the price, and then marrying. This is to bet the woman as property and pay child support when giving her daughter. Also, when the family died, the body was buried, and the bones were later removed. Family communal graveIt was enshrined in a large neck. Also, at the entrance of the neck wall, a pot of rice was hung as food for the dead.

3) Dongye

 Dongye also has a rich land and rich seafood, so economic life such as farming and fishing was abundant. The record of observing the constellations at dawn and knowing the storms of the year in advance also indicates that Dongye's production base is based on agriculture. In addition, weaving techniques developed, such as weaving silk and hemp. As a special product ShortbowWith a bow called Guahama, ironfish The back was fashionable.

 Every year in Dongye Mucheon in OctoberThe Jecheon event called, was held, which continues the tradition of the Thanksgiving Festival in the agricultural society. This is a custom that suggests the importance of farming in production activities. Dongye said that when a person gets sick or dies due to a lot of taboos, he will throw away the old house and build a new one soon. The structure of the house is a pit, and the housing surface is 20 to 50 cm below the ground. The flat form comes with a rectangular seat 呂(female) shape, 凸(iron) shapeThere is.

Dongye is geographically isolated and has long maintained the tradition of clan society without much influence from outside interference. First of all, no marriage within the same clan Extramarital marriageIt was said that the tiger was strictly observed, and that the tiger is considered a god and lives again. This is believed to have survived the primitive custom of worshiping tigers as mountain gods. It also prevented them from invading the territory of each tribe. Since each tribe has a separate living area, economic activities such as hunting, fishing, and farming were conducted only within their own area. If it violates the living sphere of another tribe, Book artSo, they made compensation with slaves, cattle, and horses. These customs were penalties that existed for the stability of life and property protection of local residents.

 5. Samhan

 1) Alliance formation

 As the Yemaek tribes north of the Han River built Gojoseon, Buyeo, and Goguryeo based on the Bronze Age and Iron Age cultures, a political integration movement took place in the Han Chinese society south of the Han River. Jin was growing early in the southern region of Gojoseon. In the second century B.C.E., traffic with China was blocked due to the interference of Gojoseon. However, in Jin, a new culture was spread and fused with the indigenous culture, and the society developed further by Yu immigrants who came to the south due to the changes of the Gojoseon society. Thus, the alliances of Mahan, Byeonhan, and Jinhan appeared.

 Mahan developed in Gyeonggi, Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, centering on the Cheonan, Iksan, and Naju regions. Mahan consisted of 54 small countries, totaling 100,000 units. Among them, the largest country was 10,000, and the smallest was thousands. This region was also the first place for political groups exile from Gojoseon to settle down because of its easy access to China, fertile land, and abundant products. Mahan was the largest among Samhan.

 Byeonhan developed in the Gimhae and Masan areas, and Jinhan developed in the Daegu and Gyeongju areas. Byeonhan and Jinhan were divided into 12 countries each, and there were 40 to 50,000 units in total. Among them, the large country had 4-5 thousand households and the small country had 600-700 households. In the coastal areas of Gyeongsangnam-do, Gimhae and Masan have developed sea routes, so external forces can easily enter through the sea. ironA lot of these were produced and exported to Japan and Nakrang. Therefore, Byunhan is formed based on this. Iron was also used as currency in trade. In Gyeongsangbuk-do's Nakdong River basin and the Gyeongju area, a large number of the ruling class of Wiman Joseon descended south to form Jinhan.

 Cultural development in the late Iron Age brought about a change in Samhan society. In the banks of the current Han River, the Mahan region was integrated as the Baek Empire grew. In addition, Guya-guk grew in the Nakdong River basin, and Saro-guk grew in the east, laying the foundation for a centralized state, laying the foundation for the Gaya alliance and Silla respectively.

 2) national structure

 One of the small countries that make up the Mahan The ruler of Mokjiguk is King Mahan or King JinHe was elected as the leading force in the whole of Samhan. Among the rulers of Samhan Shinji is the strongest, and Eupcha is the smallest Called the back. Meanwhile, in addition to the political ruler in Samhan, Cheongun, the priestThere was this. And there was Sodo as a sacred area, where the Cheongun presided over rituals for agriculture and religion. Supervised by Heavenly Army SodoIs a place beyond the reach of the military commander, and if even a criminal escaped and hid here, he could not be caught. In the presence of these priests, we can glimpse the transformation of ancient beliefs and the separation of the institution.

 Samhan society was an agricultural society based on ironware culture. Various iron farming tools such as hoe, moisturizing, sickle, and hoe were made. Uichang, Gyeongnam DahoriThe discovery of an iron basketball in the tomb of is a good example. In addition, since the climate is warm, rich in rain, and there are many reservoirs, rice farming began early, which made Samhan society more prosperous. Reservoirs such as Byeokgolje in Gimje in Jeollabuk-do and Uirimji in Jecheon, Chungcheongbuk-do were built during the Mahan period. And Samhan has collaborated on a number of things through the Doure organization, which shows a communal tradition.

 Common people in small countries lived in towns and villages, in charge of agricultural and handicraft production, and lived in thatched-roofed barn houses or huts. After sowing seeds every year in Samhan, May DayTo gather autumn grains Seasonal in OctoberI opened up and held a sacrifice to heaven. During these Jecheon events, people from all over the country gathered and prepared food and alcohol every day to sing and dance.

In Samhan Null graveThe burial mound was excavated in various places with a water ditch around the tomb. Poison graveWas widely used. Also, when a person dies, he put burial items in the tomb because of the idea that people will return to heaven and live forever. Jin, in Byeonhan Big bird feathersThey buried them together, and it was said that he wanted the dead to rise.
 Other than that, Samhan had a custom of tattoos, and there are records of migraines due to the unique customs of Jin and Byeonhan. As soon as a child is born, he flattens his head with a stone.

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